Coronavirus Live Updates: N.Y. Posts Its Largest Daily Death Toll, and Trump Effectively Ousts Relief Funds’ Watchdog

Trump effectively ousts the top watchdog for the $2 trillion in virus relief.

President Trump moved on Tuesday to oust the leader of a new panel of watchdogs charged with overseeing how his administration spends trillions of taxpayer dollars in coronavirus pandemic relief. It was the latest step in an unfolding White House power play over semi-independent inspectors general across the government.

The official, Glenn A. Fine, has been the acting inspector general for the Defense Department since before Mr. Trump took office. Last week, an umbrella group of inspectors general across the executive branch named him the chairman of a new Pandemic Response Accountability Committee with control of an $80 million budget to police how the government carries out the $2 trillion relief bill.

Credit…Drew Angerer/Getty Images

But Mr. Trump has now abruptly named a different federal official — Sean O’Donnell, the Environmental Protection Agency’s inspector general — to be the acting inspector general for the Defense Department. The move effectively removed Mr. Fine — a former Justice Department inspector general with a reputation for aggression and independence — from his role overseeing pandemic spending.

Democrats immediately condemned Mr. Fine’s sudden sidelining from the committee as “corrupt,” in the words of Senator Chuck Schumer of New York, the minority leader.

Representative Carolyn B. Maloney, Democrat of New York and the chairwoman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, blasted Mr. Trump’s actions as “a direct insult to the American taxpayers — of all political stripes — who want to make sure that their tax dollars are not squandered on wasteful boondoggles, incompetence or political favors.”

And Senator Jack Reed of Rhode Island, the top Democrat on the Senate Armed Services Committee, said his panel had been given no justification or rationale for Mr. Fine’s replacement.

Thomas B. Modly, the acting Navy secretary, resigned Tuesday following his bungled response to an outbreak of the virus aboard the aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt engulfed the Navy in a public relations disaster, Defense Department officials said.

Mr. Modly’s departure marks the latest in a string of events that began last week, after The San Francisco Chronicle published a letter in which the Roosevelt’s commander, Capt. Brett E. Crozier, pleaded with the Navy to help contain the virus that had spread rapidly through his ship.

The Navy has announced more than 170 coronavirus cases aboard the Roosevelt since the outbreak started in late March, after the ship had docked in Da Nang, Vietnam.

Mr. Modly fired Captain Crozier on April 2 after accusing him of circumventing the Navy’s traditional chain of command by copying more than 20 people on the emailed letter.

The firing sent shock waves through the crew, which was only exacerbated Monday when Mr. Modly flew to Guam, where the Roosevelt is now docked, and said Captain Crozier was “too naïve or too stupid to be a commanding officer of a ship like this.”

He also rebuked the crew for having cheered their captain as he left the ship.

Amid some encouraging signs, major challenges remain in grappling with the virus.

After weeks of unrelentingly bleak news, a few encouraging signs have begun to emerge in recent days suggesting that the spread of the virus is beginning to slow in at least some parts of Asia and Europe that have adopted strict social distancing measures.

Wuhan, the Chinese city where the virus first appeared, lifted its lockdown, and China announced no new deaths from the virus for the first time since January, though doubts remain about the veracity of its statistics. Two of Europe’s most battered countries, Italy and Spain, have seen hopeful signs that their rate of new infections may be slowing. And one framework that American policymakers are relying on to try to predict the course of the outbreak, by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, was recently revised with generally less dire projections.

But the scope of the staggering challenges that remain was underscored Tuesday when New York, the hardest hit state in America, reported that another 731 people had died from the virus, the most deaths there in a single day since the crisis began.

It was a sobering reminder that, even amid signs that the spread of the virus may be beginning to level off in parts in some hard-hit places — and there have even been signs suggesting that it may be in New York — it is doing so at a very high level. Many people continue to die each day and many hospitals are stretched to their limits.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York said that while the state’s new death toll was upsetting, he was encouraged by data showing that the rate of hospitalizations had fallen for several days, suggesting that the spread of the virus could be plateauing. But he cautioned against growing complacent or easing up on social distancing measures that seem to be working.

“To the extent that we see a flattening or a possible plateau,” Mr. Cuomo said, “that’s because of what we are doing and we have to keep doing it.”

And for all the places that seem to be making progress, there are other places where the crisis only seems to be growing.

France’s health minister said Tuesday that the country had not reached the peak of its epidemic and was “still in a worsening phase.” The country has recorded some 78,167 cases in total and 10,328 deaths, with the toll steadily rising.

Britain — where Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who has the virus, was moved into intensive care Monday — has been reporting high numbers of new infections. And several parts of the United States are bracing for worse outbreaks in the days and weeks to come.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York said on Tuesday that 731 more people had died in the state, the largest number of deaths in a single day from the virus since the crisis began. The grim tally followed two days in which the numbers appeared to have leveled off. The total number of deaths is 5,489.

The governor emphasized that the death rate was a lagging indicator, and pointed to a falling rate of hospitalizations. He also said that the state was still projecting that the spread of the virus was plateauing.

Mr. Cuomo said that increases in hospital beds and the number of health care providers who were working had helped New York to balance its patient load and help ensure that no one facility was overburdened.

The number of hospitalizations depends not only on the number of new arrivals but also on hospital admission standards. As hospitals have teetered on the brink of being overwhelmed, they have sent home people whom they would have admitted just a few weeks earlier, several New York doctors said in interviews.

So even if the number of hospitalizations appears to have plateaued, that could be because the number of sick people turning up has lessened, or it may have to do with changing hospital admissions standards — or both.

Mr. Cuomo said that social distancing practices were working and that they had to continue.

The governor also said that planning was underway to restart the regional economy and that he had spoken to the governors of New Jersey and Connecticut about coordinating those efforts.

The governor called for federal assistance, using a PowerPoint slide to assert that “the next federal legislation must remedy the previous inequities.” (Mr. Cuomo had previously criticized the federal stimulus package as “woefully inadequate” and said on Tuesday that once he had studied the bill, he found that it was even worse than he’d thought.)

Prime Minister Boris Johnson of Britain remained in the intensive care unit of a London hospital on Tuesday battling symptoms, raising questions not just about the state of his health but about who would lead the country, gripped by a major outbreak, in his stead if that became necessary. In England alone, 758 patients were reported to have died in hospital in 24 hours, public health officials reported on Tuesday.

Mr. Johnson was transferred to the intensive care unit on Monday after his illness worsened. Aides said he had been moved in case he needed a ventilator to help his recovery. On Tuesday evening, the British foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, said that Mr. Johnson was “receiving standard oxygen treatment and breathing without any assistance,” like a ventilator.

As Britain has no written Constitution and no standard line of succession in the case of illness or death of the head of the government, it was for Mr. Johnson to decide who should stand in for him if he became ill. But the man he nominated, Mr. Raab, has been relatively untested, serving as the leader of the Foreign Office for less than a year.

While Mr. Johnson remains as the head of the government from his hospital bed, the seriousness of his illness means that could change quickly. At a time of extraordinary challenge, Mr. Raab is already serving as chairman of a key committee on the pandemic as the government battles to control the spread of the virus and stabilize an economy hit hard by the lockdown measures it has imposed.

Previous British prime ministers, including Tony Blair and Margaret Thatcher, have had health issues while in power, but had brief periods of absence for planned procedures.

Mr. Johnson could be hospitalized for some time, and at a moment when the government must make major decisions about its virus response. Though some British prime ministers have nominated deputies, Mr. Johnson chose not to do so when he took the role last year.

The last time Britain experienced such a power vacuum was in 1953, when Winston Churchill suffered a stroke and the truth of his condition was kept from the British public.

Before going into intensive care, Mr. Johnson asked Mr. Raab to stand in for him “where necessary.”

Another senior minister, Michael Gove — who has had a lead role in coordinating the government’s response, including giving interviews on Mr. Johnson’s state of health — announced on Twitter on Tuesday that he was self-isolating. He felt well, he said, but a member of his family showed symptoms of the virus.

China has ended its lockdown of Wuhan, the city where the coronavirus first emerged and a potent symbol in a pandemic that has killed tens of thousands of people. But the damaged city has a long way to go before it returns to normal.

The move came hours after China announced no new deaths from the virus for the first time since January, though doubts remain about the veracity of China’s statistics.

The Chinese authorities had sealed off Wuhan, an industrial hub of 11 million people, in late January, in a frantic attempt to limit the outbreak’s spread. At the time, many outsiders saw it as an extreme step, one that could be tried only in an authoritarian system like China’s. But as the epidemic has worsened, governments around the world have enacted a variety of stringent restrictions on their citizens’ movements.

Wuhan’s recovery could offer a window into how other places recover. Sickness and death have touched hundreds of thousands of lives. Businesses, even those that have reopened, face a wrenching road ahead, with sluggishness likely to persist. Neighborhood authorities continue to regulate people’s comings and goings, with no return to normalcy in sight.

Controls on outbound travel were officially lifted just after midnight on Wednesday in China. People can now leave after presenting to the authorities a government-sanctioned phone app that indicates, based on their home address, recent travels and medical history, whether they are a contagion risk. China’s national rail operator estimated that more than 55,000 people would leave Wuhan by train on Wednesday, according to a state-run broadcaster.

China has had 83,654 infections since the start of the outbreak, according to official figures collated by The New York Times. At least 3,331 people nationwide have died, with most other patients recovered.

But many believe the true death toll is far higher. American intelligence officers say that because midlevel officials in Wuhan and elsewhere have lied about infection rates, testing and death counts, even Beijing does not know the full extent of China’s outbreak. Those doubts are rife in Wuhan, where officials have suppressed online discussion of fatalities and pushed for quick, quiet burials of victims.

The Chinese Communist Party said on Tuesday that it was investigating an outspoken property tycoon who accused China’s top leader, Xi Jinping, of having mishandled the outbreak.

Party officials said the man, Ren Zhiqiang, was suspected of “serious violations of discipline and law,” a euphemism the authorities often use for corruption and other abuses of power.

Mr. Ren, a longtime party member, disappeared last month after having written an explosive essay describing Mr. Xi as a power-hungry “clown.” The essay, which circulated on Chinese social media sites, said that the party’s strict limits on freedom of speech and its silencing of the news media had exacerbated the epidemic.

A brief statement about the investigation of Mr. Ren, issued by party disciplinary officials in Beijing, did not provide Mr. Ren’s whereabouts, give details about the status of his case or make mention of the essay.

A top White House adviser starkly warned Trump administration officials in late January that the crisis could cost the United States trillions of dollars and put millions of Americans at risk of illness or death.

The warning, in a memo by Peter Navarro, Mr. Trump’s trade adviser, is the highest-level alert known to have circulated inside the West Wing as the administration was taking its first substantive steps to confront a crisis that had already consumed China’s leaders and would go on to upend life in Europe and the United States.

“The lack of immune protection or an existing cure or vaccine would leave Americans defenseless in the case of a full-blown coronavirus outbreak on U.S. soil,” Mr. Navarro’s memo said. “This lack of protection elevates the risk of the coronavirus evolving into a full-blown pandemic, imperiling the lives of millions of Americans.”

Dated Jan. 29, it came during a period when Mr. Trump was playing down the risks to the United States. He later went on to say that no one could have predicted such a devastating outcome.

Mr. Navarro said in the memo that the administration faced a choice about how aggressive to be in containing an outbreak, saying the human and economic costs would be relatively low if it turned out to be a problem along the lines of a seasonal flu.

But he went on to emphasize that the “risk of a worst-case pandemic scenario should not be overlooked” given the information coming from China.

In one worst-case scenario cited in the memo, more than a half-million Americans could die.

African-Americans are suffering virus infections at disturbing rates in some of the largest cities and states in the United States, emerging statistics show.

In Louisiana, about 70 percent of the people who have died are African-American, though only a third of the state’s population is black. In the county around Milwaukee, where 27 percent of residents are black, nearly twice as many African-American residents tested positive for the virus as white people. And in Chicago, where African-American residents make up a little less than a third of the population, more than half of those found to have the virus are black, and African-Americans make up 72 percent of those who have died of the virus.

Data on the race of those sickened by the virus has only been made public in a handful of places and is too limited to make sweeping conclusions. But racial disparities in cases and outcomes, researchers said, reflect what happens when a viral pandemic is layered on top of entrenched inequalities.

The data, researchers said, is partly explained by factors that could make black Americans more vulnerable in any outbreak: They are less likely to be insured, more likely to already have health conditions and more likely to be denied testing and treatment. There is also the highly infectious nature of the virus in a society where black Americans disproportionately hold jobs that do not allow them to stay at home, the researchers said.

“If you walk outside and see who is actually still working,” said Elaine Nsoesie, of Boston University’s School of Public Health, “the data don’t seem surprising.”

Long lines, health jitters, flaring tempers and a dose of chaos and confusion marked Wisconsin’s presidential primary and local elections on Tuesday, as voters were forced to choose between staying safe during a pandemic and exercising their civic duty.

State Republican leaders, backed up by a conservative majority on the state Supreme Court, rebuffed the Democratic governor’s attempt to postpone in-person voting at a moment when the outbreak has prompted officials to recommend stay-at-home orders in most of the nation.

Voters in Milwaukee, the state’s Democratic base and most populous city, experienced significant disruptions. Election workers there expected more than 50,000 voters Tuesday, but the number of polling locations was drastically reduced, from more than 180 to just five. Some voters waited in line for more than two hours, spread out over blocks as they tried to practice social distancing.

In other parts of the state, especially in smaller communities that tend to be less Democratic, the in-person voting process was running relatively smoothly, with wait times more closely resembling a normal election.

It remained to be seen how the disruptions could affect the Democratic presidential primary contest between former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. and Senator Bernie Sanders.

The political and legal skirmishing surrounding the Wisconsin balloting amounted to only the first round of an expected national fight over voting rights during the ccrisis.

Gov. Tony Evers of Wisconsin, a Democrat, had issued an executive order postponing in-person voting and extending to June the deadline for absentee ballots. But Republican leaders succeeded in getting the state’s top court to stay the decree.

And in a decision late Monday, the U.S. Supreme Court’s conservative-leaning majority dealt its own blow to Wisconsin Democrats. In a 5-4 vote, the majority ruled against extending the deadline for absentee voting, saying such a change “fundamentally alters the nature of the election.” The court’s four liberal members dissented, with Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg writing that “the court’s order, I fear, will result in massive disenfranchisement.”

On Tuesday Mr. Biden criticized Mr. Trump’s stewardship of the crisis, a day after the two men spoke by phone over how to combat the outbreak.

“His failings and his delays continue,” Mr. Biden said by video to a virtual convention hosted by the Pennsylvania AFL-CIO. “We continue to see it. And it’s causing real pain for so many Americans.”

Mr. Biden, who has said that the presidential election must take place in November as required, raised the prospect of voting by mail.

“We cannot delay or postpone a constitutionally required November election,” Mr. Biden said during an earlier appearance on NBC. “We should be thinking now ahead — have all the experts, both political parties and academia laying out what it would take to have voting by mail. I’d much prefer to have, you know, in-person voting but it depends. It depends on the state of play.”

U.S. stocks ended slightly lower on Tuesday after an early rally faded late in the day.

The S&P 500 fell 0.2 percent at the close of trading. Earlier, stocks had been as much as 3 percent higher as investors took heart in continued signs that the coronavirus outbreak may be peaking in a number of hard-hit places.

Stocks have been on a fairly strong, even if disjointed, run over the past two weeks. Initially fueled by Washington’s $2 trillion effort to counter the economic effect of the pandemic, the rally took on a more hopeful tone — reflecting glimmers of progress in the fight against the virus’s spread in the United States and Europe.

Through Tuesday, the S&P 500 is up nearly 19 percent from its March 23 low. (It’s still more than 20 percent below its high, reached on Feb. 19.)

Besieged by requests, the small business loan program could grow by $250 billion.

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said he has asked lawmakers for another $250 billion to supplement a new program created to help small businesses secure loans from banks, in response to an overwhelming demand for assistance through the program.

Mr. Mnuchin, in a Twitter post Tuesday afternoon, said that he had reached out to top Democrats and Republicans “at the direction” of Mr. Trump to try and secure additional funds. Mr. Mnuchin said he had spoken with Senators Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the majority leader, and Chuck Schumer of New York, the minority leader, along with Ms. Pelosi and Representative Kevin McCarthy.

“It is quickly becoming clear that Congress will need to provide more funding or this crucial program may run dry,” Mr. McConnell said in a statement Tuesday. “That cannot happen.”

Larry Kudlow, the top White House economic adviser, said Tuesday morning that the program had funded 178,000 loans at a value of $50 billion so far.

Congress initially allocated $349 billion to the effort, which was created as part of the $2 trillion economic stabilization package signed into law last month.

Economists who pushed for the creation of the program in the economic rescue package that passed two weeks ago have consistently warned that small businesses will need three times as much money as Congress initially authorized — or more — to avoid a wave of bankruptcies.

Turkey orders all citizens to wear masks as infections surge.

Turkey has ordered all citizens to wear masks when shopping or visiting crowded public places and announced it will start to deliver masks to every family, free of charge, as infections sharply increase in the country of 80 million.

Turkey has over 30,000 confirmed cases of the virus and has registered 649 deaths. More than 1,300 patients are in intensive care units and at least 600 medical workers have been infected, according to figures released by the Health Ministry.

The number of cases places Turkey among the top 10 worst affected countries, a sharp rise since its first confirmed death from the disease on March 17.

Health Minister Fahrettin Koca, however, said on Monday that the increase in confirmed cases was low when compared with the increase in testing, which has been ramped up to more than 20,000 per day.

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has introduced measures to contain the spread of the virus, asking people to stay at home and imposing a curfew on those over 65 and under 20, but resisting a nationwide lockdown.

Opposition politicians, including the mayors of two of the biggest cities, Ankara and Istanbul, which have been among the hardest hit by the virus, have called for stricter measures, but Mr. Erdogan has allowed industry, construction firms and public transport to continue working.

“Turkey’s situation concerning urgent needs, from health to food and cleaning material, is very good,” Mr. Erdogan said in an address to the nation on Monday. “We not only have the ability to overcome this epidemic, but also the morale and determination.”

India appeared to be softening its position on blocking the export of hydroxychloroquine, a drug that Mr. Trump has promoted as a possible treatment for the virus.

India is the world’s largest producer of hydroxychloroquine, known as HCQ, and the president threatened Monday night to retaliate against India if it did not lift tough export restrictions imposed last month.

Many scientists question if the drug, usually prescribed to treat malaria and rheumatism, actually helps against the virus. But Mr. Trump and others have called it “a game changer.”

“In view of the humanitarian aspects of the pandemic, it has been decided that India would license paracetamol and HCQ in appropriate quantities to all our neighboring countries who are dependent on our capabilities,” Anurag Srivastava, a spokesman for India’s foreign ministry, said on Tuesday. (Paracetemol is the pain reliever usually called acetaminophen or Tylenol in the United States.)

“We will also be supplying these essential drugs to some nations who have been particularly badly affected by the pandemic,” Mr. Srivastava said.

India’s cases have been doubling every four days; the number of detected cases has risen above 4,000, and the country remains under a strict lockdown that has kept much of its 1.3 billion people indoors.

Concerns are rising that the lockdown could send India into a deep recession that will hit hundreds of millions of poor people especially hard. The Indian government is now planning to slash the salaries of all members of Parliament, including Prime Minister Narendra Modi, by 30 percent.

Even as death tolls are rising in France, rebounding in Spain and have yet to peak in cities across Europe, some countries have begun publicly considering plans to lift restrictions on movement and return to some semblance of normalcy.

Sebastian Kurz, the chancellor of Austria, in a Monday news conference introduced a timetable for the country to re-emerge from lockdown that would see some stores reopen after Easter.

Austria has recorded 12,058 confirmed cases and 220 deaths, but with new cases appearing to peak on March 26, the government has begun to plan for a loosening of restrictions. Mr. Kurz pleaded with residents to maintain social distancing rules this week, saying it was crucial.

Denmark will allow its youngest children to return to day care and school starting April 15, Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen announced on Monday, describing the steps as the first phase of the lifting a series of restrictions announced last month.

Other restrictions — like border closures, and the shuttering of restaurants and other nonessential services — will remain in place at least another four weeks. A ban on large gatherings was extended through August. Ms. Frederiksen said the relaxing of restrictions was not an easy decision.

“It’s like walking a tightrope: If we stand still, we may fall,” she said. “If we go too fast it may soon go wrong.”

In Italy, where there is a growing sense that the worst of the epidemic may have passed, officials are weighing the idea of widespread testing for antibodies that would allow workers to return. But elsewhere, officials have stressed that talk of lifting restrictions was premature. Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany warned on Monday that it would be “irresponsible” to discuss a date for easing measures.

Édouard Philippe, France’s prime minister, said last week that it was too early to say precisely when and how easing would happen, adding it was important not to “ruin the collective effort.”

For months, Japan has confounded the world by reporting a relatively low rate of infections without imposing the kind of stringent measures used by other nations.

As the country now declares a state of emergency in the face of a worrisome rise in cases, medical experts are wondering whether the move on Tuesday has come just in time to avoid calamity, or is too little, too late.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, in announcing that the declaration would apply to Japan’s biggest population centers for the next month, painted an optimistic picture. By asking citizens to significantly reduce human-to-human contact, he said, “the expansion of infections can be turned to a decline in two weeks.”

But some experts said the state of emergency amounted to a tacit admission that the approach the country had stood by for months was no longer working, as Japan reached 3,906 confirmed cases on Tuesday, exactly double the number a week earlier.

“Japan has been screwing up,” said Kenji Shibuya, director of the Institute for Population Health at King’s College London, adding that the confirmed cases are “just the tip of the iceberg.”

The declaration will depend largely on voluntary compliance, and Mr. Abe emphasized that it was not a lockdown, and that public transit would continue.

Maryland will deploy new “strike teams,” including members of the National Guard, to nursing homes experiencing outbreaks of the coronavirus, Gov. Larry Hogan said Tuesday.

The decision moved Maryland into the ranks of states, like Georgia, Massachusetts and Wisconsin, that have sent soldiers to nursing homes during the epidemic.

Clusters in nursing homes have led to some of the deadliest outbreaks in the United States, including at a facility in Kirkland, Wash., which has been linked to 37 deaths. On Monday, Indiana health officials said at an outbreak at a nursing home there had killed 11 people.

As of Sunday, Maryland had reported outbreaks in 81 nursing homes and long-term facilities across the state. Pleasant View Nursing Home in Carroll County has experienced at least 14 deaths, with dozens of residents and staff testing positive for the virus.

The state strike teams will provide assistance with testing and triage, and will also include doctors and nurses.

“The goal here is not to replace a nursing home’s medical and clinical team,” Mr. Hogan said, “but to provide immediate support and assistance to help protect residents of these facilities.”

With Passover under lockdown, Israeli Jews are revising the rituals.

Singing outdoors. Participating remotely in a Zoom Seder. Leaving apartment doors open so solitary neighbors can hear the recitations.

On the first night of Passover, which falls on Wednesday, multigenerational families, relatives and friends traditionally gather for the ritual Seder feast to commemorate the Israelites’ liberation from bondage in ancient Egypt.

But in an extraordinary effort to prevent the spread of the virus, the government has tightened the general lockdown with additional restrictions targeted specifically at the holiday — temporarily banning intercity travel and requiring Israelis to remain in their own homes with no visitors allowed.

The restrictions come on top of existing measures that restrict people to within 100 meters of their homes except to shop for food or medical supplies or other essential trips.

Naftali Bennett, the defense minister, warned Israelis that children sneaking over to their parents’ for Seder night “could kill them.”

The religious questions arising from Zooming this year’s Seder gatherings set off a fiery debate among Israel’s rabbis because strictly observant Jews do not use electricity or technological devices on holy days.

A group of venerable rabbis of Moroccan descent presented a nuanced ruling in favor of allowing video chat for this year only, while Israel’s state rabbinical authority opposed that ruling, upholding the ban on the use of electronic devices.

Here’s how to help from home.

Sitting at home, it’s easy to feel like there’s nothing you can do to help those on the front lines of the pandemic. But there are many things you can do to help medical professionals, the people affected directly by the virus and your local businesses.

In Afghanistan, thousands of people flooded through the border with Pakistan on Tuesday in chaotic scenes that overwhelmed any screening measures to identify cases and slow the spread of the disease.

The country’s weak management of borders has been a major issue. Even as the virus spread in neighboring Iran, hundreds of thousands of people still made it back to Afghanistan through its western borders, before spreading across the country. Now the rush of returnees from Pakistan, where nearly 4,000 cases have been confirmed, has exacerbated fears. By Tuesday morning, Afghanistan had reported 423 cases of the virus — but officials warn those numbers could not be an authentic indication of the spread, with testing starting late and remaining limited.

The border with Pakistan, shut for weeks, was temporarily opened on Monday to allow measured return of Afghans stuck on the other side. On the first day, officials even showed pictures of circles drawn on the ground to enforce distancing as returnees were checked to see if they had any symptoms. But early on Tuesday, the scenes were chaotic.

“Between 8,000 and 10,000 people rushed in all at once,” said Rahat Gul Ziarmal, the mayor in the border town of Torkham.

Reporting was contributed by Michael Cooper, Alan Blinder, Karen Zraick, Charlie Savage, Jonah Engel Bromwich, Alan Rappeport, Astead W. Herndon, Raymond Zhong, Javier C. Hernández, Carlotta Gall, Aurelien Breeden, Martin Selsoe Sorensen, Christopher F. Schuetze, Marc Santora, Megan Specia, Iliana Magra, Maggie Haberman, Mike Baker, Declan Walsh, Andrew Higgins, Carlotta Gall, Patrick Kingsley, Stephen Castle, Mark Landler, Adam Liptak, Rick Rojas, Abdi Latif Dahir, Sheila Kaplan, Katie Thomas, Vanessa Swales, Katie Glueck, Motoko Rich, Mike Ives, Richard C. Paddock, Hannah Beech, Jason Gutierrez, Muktita Suhartono, Elaine Yu and Zach Montague.

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