So far, reports from the US Air Force 45th Weather Squadron predict an 80% chance of favorable conditions for the Thursday morning launch. The biggest concern is thick clouds.
If the rover doesn’t launch at that time, launches will be possible every five minutes during a two-hour window Thursday morning. And if the launch is delayed beyond Thursday, there is a two-week window in which Perseverance can launch that ends on August 15.
“I’m exceptionally excited about what we’re about to do because we’re going to launch Mars 2020 with the Perseverance robot,” said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine during a press briefing at Kennedy Space Center. “But there is so much more going on here. This is the first time in history where we’re going to Mars with an explicit mission to find life on another world — ancient life on Mars.”
The Mars 2020 mission will launch after nearly a decade of hard work and planning by thousands of engineers, scientists and specialists at NASA centers across the country and their commercial partners.
During the final stages of mission preparation, teams had to manage the difficulties of the coronavirus pandemic.
“I really just cannot say enough about how incredible this team was,” said Michael Watkins, director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. “They really knuckled down and completed this on schedule and we are ready to go. NASA really came together as a family and really it’s just been a surprisingly smooth experience given all the troubles with Covid.”
As many at NASA have said, the rover truly lives up to its name.
A second “brain” on the rover will help Perseverance to land in what would have been an impossible site before, strewn with hazards and obstacles. This Terrain Relative Navigation instrument will help Perseverance autonomously determine the safest place to land itself. Once on the surface of Mars, that computer will help the rover to “think while driving.”
The rover will use a suite of new scientific instruments to explore Jezero Crater, the site of an ancient lake and river delta on Mars. The lake existed between 3.5 billion and 4 billion years ago when Mars was wetter, warmer and habitable.
Perseverance will search for signs of ancient microbial life that may have once existed on Mars during this time. It will collect and cache samples of rock cores and soil to be retrieved and returned to Earth by future planned missions. They will be the first Martian samples, apart from Martian meteorites, to be returned to Earth.
The samples are expected back on Earth by 2031 at the earliest, due to the complicated nature of the missions that will need to retrieve the samples before sending them back to Earth.
But once the samples have returned, the true quest to understand if life once existed on Mars could finally have an answer.
Perseverance promises to be an exciting two-year mission that will provide new perspectives of Mars. The rover has 23 cameras, some of which will be active during its harrowing entry, descent and landing. Many of these cameras are color, while some have new zoom capabilities and can even capture video.
The rover will also be able to “hear” Mars for the first time and is carrying two microphones to share the sounds of the red planet and even itself as the rover’s wheels crunch across the rocky surface.
And Perseverance will even test technology that could be used to assist future human missions to Mars, including an oxygen generator, a spacesuit material experiment and instruments that can help to better understand the dust, climate and environment on Mars.
“This mission is special for a lot of reasons,” said Matt Wallace, deputy project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. “We’re doing transformative science and looking for signs of life on another planet, among a lot of other firsts.”